India is an influential agricultural powerhouse worldwide, having farmers and all related workers as its backbone. Like many other sectors, the agricultural landscape also faces decades-long problems and unexpected challenges that are crucial to rectify. Let’s discuss some of the main issues farmers face in India and the best possible solutions.
VOl.1 Issue 9, December, 2022
Reddy et al
Intercropping – An effective tool to combat pests and pathogens in cotton
Pests and pathogens are a common problem for the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L) industry, despite the importance of this crop worldwide. Chemical pesticides are currently used for the management of cotton pests and pathogens. While chemical pesticides are generally effective, their continued use can lead to insect resistance, a decrease in natural predators and parasites, a weakening of ecological balance, and environmental degradation. The use of cultural methods, such as intercropping, to reduce pests and pathogens in cotton crops is gaining popularity as a result of rising environmental consciousness and the necessity for cotton grown without compromising on sustainability. Intercropping changes, the ecological structure and environment of the fields, which increases the number of natural enemies and decreases the number of pests and diseases that affect cotton. Intercropping with cotton is an efficient method for minimizing land use conflicts between cotton and other profitable crops like grain.
Meena et al
Ectoparasiticides is an antiparasitic drug used in the treatment or control of fleas, lice, ticks, mange mites, warbles and nuisance flies. They are commonly applied topically and are often lipophilic resulting in slow dermal absorption with long tissue and plasma half-lives.
Nayak et al
Small Ruminant Marketing in India
Livestock systems is a complex entity affecting the natural resources base and socio-economic equity (World Bank Report, 2009). In emerging economies, livestock is currently one of the fastest growing agricultural sectors. It already accounts for 33% of agricultural GDP and is rapidly increasing. Small ruminants play a prominent role in Indian economy as a source of livelihood to more than 65% of rural community. The contribution to the agricultural economy is significant, especially in areas where crop or dairy farming are not economically viable and sustainable. Livestock sector contributes about 4.11% to the total GDP and 25.6% of the total Agriculture GDP. Globally India stands second in goat population and third in sheep population.
Backyard Recirculation Aquaculture System
Recirculation Aquaculture System (RAS) is a technology where in water is recycled and reused after filtration and removal of suspended matter and metabolites. The method is used for high-density culture of various species of fish utilizing minimum land area and water. It is an intensive approach (higher densities and more rigorous management) than other aquaculture production systems. Instead of the traditional method of growing fish outdoors in open ponds and raceways, in this system fish are typically reared in indoor tanks in a “controlled” environment. Recirculating systems filter and clean the water for recycling it back through fish culture tanks. The technology is based on the use of mechanical and biological filters, and the method can in principle be used for any species grown in aquaculture. New water is added to the tanks only to make up for splash out, evaporation and for that used to flush out waste materials. The reconditioned water circulates through the system and no more than 10% of the total water volume of the system is replaced daily. In order to compete economically and to efficiently use the substantial capital investment in the recirculation system, the fish farmer needs to grow as much fish as possible in the inbuilt capacity. However, in order to encourage small-scale fish farmers and entrepreneurs and also to facilitate fish production in urban and peri-urban areas where land and water are scarce, it is proposed to promote Backyard Recirculation Aquaculture Systems.
Madhavi et al
Lumpy skin disease and its emergence in India
A virus belonging to the genus Capri poxvirus, subfamily Chordopoxvirniae, family Poxviridae, is responsible for the infectious condition known as lumpy skin disease (LSD). Diseases typically travel from one area to another via vectors that transfer them mechanically. In most endemic regions, such as sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt, and Ethiopia, the peak activity of vectors coincides with the arrival of seasonal rains and summer. The function of insects as carriers of disease, rather than by direct or indirect contact, has been verified by the decrease in cases during dry conditions with no insects or low insects’ density. Several species of ticks, including Amblyomma spp., Rhipicephalus decoloratus, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, and Amblyomma hebraeum, have been identified as potential repositories and mechanical vectors Animals that drink from and eat from the same troughs are at risk of infection because the virus is shed in bodily fluids like as milk, nasal discharge, saliva, blood, and mucous membrane fluids. LSD is primarily a disease of cattle; Buffaloes develop only mild illness where as domestic animals are considered to be resistant to LSDV infection. The maximum number of deaths due to LSD has occurred in lactating and pregnant cattle, which serve as a direct source of income in terms of the sale of milk and produce progeny, thereby adversely affecting the livelihood of poor farmers in the region
Myiasis and its management
Bora et al
Myiasis is a Greek work derived from “Myia” – refers to animal disease due to fly larva. Zumpt defined myiasis as Infestation of live human and vertebrate animals with larvae of dipteran fly which atleast for certain period feed on host’s dead or living tissues, liquid body substances or ingested food. In sheep it is referred to as “strike” or blow fly myiasis. Generally caused by larvae of Chrysomia, Lucilia, Phormia and Calliphora.
Sex-Sorting of Bovine Spermatozoa – Concepts and Methods
The production of desired sex will be the one of the crucial factors to increase the genetic improvement and farmer’s income in dairy farming. The various methods are developed to separate X-chromosome bearing sperm and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm based on different principles and methods such as based on the fluorescence of the Y chromosome, differences in mass and motility, differences in swimming pattern, differences in surface charge, differing cell surface antigenic determinants and differing DNA content that efficiently separate bovine semen into X or Y chromosome bearing sperm. Among all the techniques discussed flow cytometry is the best method which effectively separates X and Y bearing spermatozoa, for accurate prediction of the sex and to produce calves of desirable sex.
Farmers’ Suicides in India – Challenges & Solutions
Dasgupta and Bachaspati
India is an agrarian country with around 70% of its people depending directly or indirectly upon agriculture. But farmers’ suicides in India is a worrying issue. As per the Central Government, despite a multi-pronged approach to improving income and social security of farmers, over 12,000 suicides were reported in the agricultural sector every year since 2013. Farmer suicides account for approximately 10% of all suicides in India. According to the data published by GoI, seven states account for 87.5% of total suicides in the farming sector in the country. The states are Maharashtra, Karnataka, Telangana, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. Maharashtra is the worst affected state. Ironically, Punjab, which benefited most from the Green Revolution, also presents a depressing picture of farmer’s suicides in India. Between 1995-2015, 4687 farmers’ suicides have been reported from the state of Punjab of which 1334 from one Mansa district alone. When compared to other developing economies, Indian agriculture heavily depend on monsoon, limiting crop diversification to a great extent. Thus, risks including weather, a week monsoon or even a delayed monsoon, poor soil fertility, pests, and plant diseases, perish ability of crops etc. are the major causes for the agrarian distress in India. Further, climate change and global warming cause frequent events of drought and flood which further add to their woes. The main objective of this article is to highlight the reasons behind farmers’ suicide in India and to provide solutions for the same. The reasons for farmers’ suicide are multi-faceted.
Economics of 10 Buffalo and Cow: For Establishment of a Dairy in Rural Area
Lokendra¹*, Manisha Doot², Rohitash Kumar³
Azolla- A game changer feed substitute in poultry nutrition
S. Pattanaik, K. Sethy*, S. Sahu, P. Sarangi, S. Dash
In recent scenario poultry sector in India has showed an unexpected tremendous growth in the last three decades. It is proven as profitable business by delivering wholesome meat and egg with fulfilling demand of major proportion of consumer within a very short time period. The growth of poultry industry is somehow directly proportional to feed industry. Feed occupies a foremost and largest portion of expenditure in poultry industry which is estimated to approximately 2/3rd of total recurring expenditure. But unfortunately cost of the feed ingredients is increased day by day. This is due to scarcity of good quality feeds, increased human and livestock population, rapid shrinkage of cultivated land meant for crop production etc. On the other hand, availability of conventional source of poultry feeds like energy rich ingredients (cereals) and protein rich ingredients (oil seed cakes) are depreciated due to current export policy and increased interest of farmers towards cash crop cultivation. This feed crisis enforces nutritionists to think and search for the use of alternative and unconventional feed resources that are used in feed formulation. Among the submerged water plants, Azolla pinnata (a floating fern) can be utilised as non-conventional feed stuff having good nutrient profile replacing the traditional sources.
Biofortification- Leading Edge Technology for Enhanced Micronutrient Accumulation in Field Crops towards Food Security
Banka Kanda Kishore Reddy, G. Sashikala and SN Malleswari Sadhineni
Due to a growing population, there is a global threat to nutritional security. This shows that the global food system needs to use strategies that are both practical and cost-effective. Fe and Zn are two important micronutrients around the world and micronutrient deficiency in soil has also been reported in different tracts of the world. This makes it harder for plants and, eventually, for people to get the nutrients they need. These micronutrients are very important to the way the body works, so not getting enough of them has very bad effects on the body.
HYDROPONICS - Farming without Land
Dr. S.J. Aruna and Mrs. E. Kanmani
Our agricultural system has to meet a huge task by 2050.We need to increase the food production by about 70% to meet the caloric needs of the global population of 9.8 billion. Nearly 90% of the population are urban. The number of resources used by traditional agriculture is enormous where the crop production has also saturated sufficiently. Intensification and expansion of land for cultivation is the only viable option to meet the growing needs.
Intercropping In Mulberry Garden
Mulberry is a primary source of Bombyx mori. Particularly, mulberry silkworm has monophogas it can be depending on mulberry leaf. So, getting superior quality cocoon and silk mainly based on the mulberry leaf. Because of mulberry contains the entire nutritive content (Protein, moisture content, Vitamin, Carbohydrate etc.) are present. 70% of the silk produced by silkworm is directly derived from the protein of mulberry leaf.
Establishment and Maintenance of chawki (Young age silkworm) garden
Various factors that influence to successful of young age silkworm rearing and supply of suitable nutritious mulberry leaves as feed is important. The larval duration and larva health are most vital for the success fully of cocoon production for every rearing or crop. The qualitative and quantitative are requirements of the feed for silkworm various at different stages of larval period. In generally young age silkworm’s larva is required of rich nutritious leaf such as higher succulency, moisture and nutrient contents and others to compare on late age silkworm rearing. The good nutritional requirements silkworm larva directly obtained only from mulberry leaves. Other vital factors determining the success of cocoon crop are the health care and hygiene during the chawki rearing. Successfully of chawki rearing to require on separate chawki garden can be established by chawki farmers.