India is an influential agricultural powerhouse worldwide, having farmers and all related workers as its backbone. Like many other sectors, the agricultural landscape also faces decades-long problems and unexpected challenges that are crucial to rectify. Let’s discuss some of the main issues farmers face in India and the best possible solutions.
VOl.2 Issue 2, February, 2023
राकेश कुमार और एकता रानी
डेयरी पशुओं में खनिज मिश्रण का महत्व
मानव पोषण (दूध और मक्खन वसा), पौधों के पोषण (खेत की खाद) और ऊर्जा (बैल शक्ति) में उनके योगदान के संदर्भ में डेयरी उद्यम एक महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका निभाता है। डेयरी खेती ग्रामीण गरीबों के लिए आजीविका का एक विश्वसनीय स्रोत है क्योंकि इसमें लाभकारी स्वरोजगार और स्थायी आय प्रदान करने की क्षमता है। इसके अलावा, इसे न्यूनतम पूंजी निवेश और श्रम के साथ बनाए रखा जा सकता है। दुधारू पशुओं के चारे का पशुओं के प्रजनन और उत्पादन पर सीधा प्रभाव पड़ता है। इसलिए, दूध उत्पादन और पशु की उत्पादकता की पूरी क्षमता प्राप्त करने के लिए खनिज मिश्रण को जोड़ना आवश्यक हो जाता है।
एकता रानी और राकेश कुमार
स्वच्छ दूध उत्पादन
स्वच्छ दूध स्वस्थ पशुओं से प्राप्त कच्चा दूध होता है, केवल सीमित संख्या में हानिरहित सूक्ष्मजीवों और हानिकारक रासायनिक अवशेषों से रहित होने के कारण, सैनिटरी परिस्थितियों में उत्पादित और संभाला गया है। एक स्वस्थ पशु और एक स्वस्थ दुहने वाले द्वारा निर्मित किया जाना चाहिए। स्वच्छ दुग्ध उत्पादन में शामिल है निवारक तकनीकों का सेट जो पशु को स्वस्थ रखने में सहायता करता है और मास्टिटिस जैसे रोगों से मुक्त, साथ ही जानवरों के उत्पादन को प्रभावित किए बिना उच्चतम गुणवत्ता वाले दूध प्राप्त करने के लिए व्यक्तिगत पशुओं की उचित देखभाल प्रबंधन।
Hejbina Mehjabin Hussain and Subrata Das*
Precision Agriculture: Future Technology for Today's Farmers
New trends are starting to develop in the agriculture industry as a result of recent improvements in communication technology and wireless sensor networks. It is now time to utilize all current methods and technologies for increased economic and ecologically sustainable crop production by fusing information technology and agricultural science. By customizing management for specific tiny sections inside fields as opposed to managing whole fields as a single unit, this exciting new trend of precision agriculture and farming sets itself apart from traditional agriculture. Although this objective is not new, the technology that are currently accessible enable the realization of precision agriculture in a real-world agricultural environment. This essay provides an overview of the transfer of precise technology to the agricultural industry, the state of precision farming today, and implementation tactics.
Sethi et al
Gunapaselam, on Tobacco Necrotic Virus (TNV) Affecting Cyamopsis Tetragonaloba Taub
Tobacco Necrotic Virus (TNV) is a plant disease affecting most of the legumes and other vegetable crops. The primary symptom being abnormal coloring or necrotic tissue in the leaves. Currently only chemical control of the virus is possible. There are, however, cultural management options to reduce the risk of the virus. The ‘ABC’ of TNV is (A) refers to dark brown raised patches, (B) dark sunken lesions (C) light brown cracked patches. Gunapaselam is a plant tonic made with fish extracts along with jaggery .Serial dilutions of the Fish Tonic ranging from1,10,100 to 1000µl were applied to the host plant Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (Cluster Bean).The promising levels being 100 µl.Gunapaselam was applied as a liquid foliar spray.
Sethi et al
Nano Capsules of Nske (Neem Seed Kernel Extract) On Solanum Melongena ---A Promising Organic Pesticide
Pests are a new sense to all the farmers being a vegetable/fruit crop. A natural pesticide is more promising than a chemical one. Neem Seed Kernel Extract (NSKE) is a potential pesticide currently used at a dosage of 1 litre/sqhectar. Silver nanocapsules of NSKE is far better than NSKE at a dosage of 250 ml/ sq. hectar. The brinjal plant when sprayed with nano solution is more efficient than the normal NSKE(Neem Seed Kernel Extract).
Sethi et al
Economic Conditions of Agriculture Before & After Covid Extuation
The COVID-19 pandemic has greatest devastating impact on the human health and global economy the world has faced after 2 world war. Like other sectors the food and agriculture sectors have also felt these effects. In many countries, the measures taken to control the spread of the virus were initiated to hamper the supply of agricultural products to markets and consumers inside and outside the borders. This pandemic has some deep impacts on food safety, nutrition, and the livelihoods of farmers, fishermen, and others working in the food supply chain depends mainly on short, medium, and long-term policy responses. The aim of the review paper is to highlight the valuable insight on the impact of COVID-19 on the Indian agricultural system and rural economy, as well as some potential strategies for post pandemic recovery.
Durga et al
Enhancing forage productivity by grass legume intercropping for sustainable dairy farming
Livestock farming is the backbone of Indian agriculture and is critical to employment generation, particularly in rural regions. Fodders are distinct from food and commercial crops in that they are planted primarily for the fresh green vegetative biomass. The feed supply situation in India is exceedingly fragile, with a large shortfall. India has 37.28 % of the world's cattle population (Sonavale et al., 2020), putting significant demand on available feed and fodder, especially as area accessible for fodder cultivation has been shrinking. A lack of feed supplies has frequently been identified as a primary explanation for Kerala's dramatic fall in cattle numbers during the previous two decades. In India, there is no practice of fodder cultivation in rural regions, and animals consume naturally occurring grasses and bushes that are poor in protein and low calories. They are so largely reliant on seasonal changes, which causes fluctuations in fodder availability, which affects milk production throughout the year and eventually leads to financial crises among dairy producers. So here comes the role of a grass legume mixture as a balanced fodder supply that meet the daily requirement of roughage in the diet.
Dr. Komal Chauhan
Phytochemicals As Feed Additives in Dairy Cattle
The ruminant feed pyramid as illustrated by Lundquist (1995) provides the basis for formulating ration for dairy cattle. High quality forages and grains form the basis of all diets and support good milk production but in order to ensure higher milk production, fats, rumen undegradable protein and other feed additives are required.
Saurav et al
Respiratory Diseases and Health Effects due to air pollution
As the world moves towards globalization and industrialization, there are various other causes which are robbing the earth of its sustainability. The threat to human health and quality of life has increased due to the increasing amount of pollution that occurs every day and is brought on by a variety of sources. There are many different types of pollution, among them air pollution poses a serious risk to both the environment and human health. Since a large portion of the world's population now lives in urban areas and air pollution exposure has been linked to an increase in mortality in these areas, which is primarily brought on by cardio-pulmonary diseases, it is one of the major public health concerns that affects approximately 95% of the world's population. (Kurt et al., 2016)
Parasana and Kumbhani
Immune Mediated Hemolytic Anemia - An Overview
Immune Mediated Hemolytic Anemia (IMHA) is a complex disease characterized by immune destruction of red blood cells that have been coated with immunoglobulins, complement or both, resulting in destruction of erythrocytes either extravascularly or intravascularly. Antibodies may be directed against normal erythrocytes (primary or idiopathic) or against erythrocytes that have been antigenically altered through interaction with secondary causes viz., drugs, neoplasia and infectious diseases.
Singh et al
Symptomatology and Treatment of Snake Bites in Animals
snake bites are common in domesticated animals, and deaths occur due to venom or wound infection. During the bite, fangs inject venom. Fang marks on the skin are an indication of venomous snake bites. These are made up of a row of small punctures with two huge punctures outside of them. Non-venomous snakes only puncture the skin in two rows. The two most common groups of snakes are Viperine which causes hemorrhage, arteriolar thrombosis, and necrosis whereas Elapine snakes cause flaccid paralysis, mydriasis, and respiratory paresis. Venoms are most toxic to horses and can be lethal to dogs. Elapidae include coral snakes, cobras, kraits, and mombus, while rattle snakes, pit vipers, and water moceasins are very venomous.
Lade et al
Great Indian Bustard-Provider of Ecological Services, Now Under Threat of Extinction
India is one of biodiversity rich country of the world, standing 6th in list of 12 mega biodiversity countries. In Asia, India is 3rd among country having threatened species of birds, with 85 bird’s species listed as critical, endangered and vulnerable and further 52 as near threated.
Applications Of Nutrigenomics in Livestock
Nutrigenomics is a science which analyses the effects of nutrients on the expression of an individual’s genetic makeup. It includes three “omics” viz., Transcriptomics, Proteomics and Metabolomics. It analyses how nutrition influence gene expression, metabolic pathways and disease development which implies the possibility to change the way of feeding the livestock and poultry. Nutrigenomics combines diversified fields such as nutrition, bioinformatics, molecular biology, genomics and epigenomics. The main function of nutrigenomics is to develop the feeds that can be matched to genotypes of animals for a better production, reproduction and health. Nutrigenomics in livestock can applied in improvement of growth rate, milk production and composition, feed usage and carcass composition, disease resistance, enhanced reproductive and prolificacy enhancement. Generally, nutrigenomics can bridge the gap between genetic profile and feeding for better conversion efficiency in livestock production and reproduction. The challenge for nutrigenomics research is to target the genes involved in the major diseases. Nutrigenomics has various benefits and applications as biomarkers, developing strategies for prevention of diseases, designing functional foods, identification of pathways and candidate genes, improving production and reproduction and make a pathway towards personalized nutrition.
Akash Saha and Atri Ghosh
Farm Management, Production & Resource Economics
From the evolution of human history, it is amply testified that economic development traces its origin to agriculture. Even the developed countries were basically agriculture in origin and through this sector, they could achieve industrial development. When a country progresses industrially, it is quite obvious that the share of agricultural sector in their economies declines. In the case of developing countries, the share of agricultural sector in the gross domestic product is high. However, notwithstanding the share of agricultural sector in the gross domestic product, this sector occupies a prominent place in all economies on the globe. Now, examine the role of agriculture in the economic development of the country.
Reddy et al
Advances in herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) as plant defense and application potential for crop protection
Plants release volatile compounds called herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) in response to being eaten by herbivores. These compounds play crucial roles in plant defense, either by repelling the herbivores themselves or by enticing the herbivores' natural enemies, such as predatory insects, to attack the plant. Insect parasitoids and predators rely on HIPVs to find their prey or host, and when a plant recruits these mutualistic insects, it is protected against herbivores. Yet, numerous fields of study have lately begun to focus on HIPVs for crop protection beyond their role in tritrophic interaction.